Step-by-step process of root Canal Treatment
A. Depth of the root canals electronically or radiographically.
Teeth can be individually different in size, and accordingly, the tooth roots are differently long. Depending on the tooth group, they reach differently into the jaw bone. The root canal filling should be approximately 0.5 to 1.5 millimeters in front of the root tip since the root canals usually have their narrowest point here.
Bacteria or root canal filling material should not reach beyond the tip of the root, as this can lead to painful tissue reactions. Therefore, the required length of the root canal filling (working length) is determined with a so-called measuring x-ray and electronic devices (Apex locators). In pregnancy, of course, no x-ray should be prepared. Here the electronic length determination (endometry with Apex locators) proves to be very helpful.
B. Clean, expand and form channels
Once the channel inputs are found, the channels are processed with root canal instruments to remove the infected tissue in the channels. This is done in several steps, for which you need differently thin instruments (up to 0.1 mm). Since the channels are usually very narrow and curved, these instruments must be very flexible and well-cut. They should not be too thick and stiff. Otherwise they will not follow the canal course and possibly damage or destroy the tooth roots.
C. Disinfect the canal system, dissolve residual tissue
The root canals are not only narrow and curved, but they also have different branches and lateral canals. As a result, many areas cannot be reached with mechanical instruments, which is why the root canal system is thoroughly rinsed after mechanical processing. Various rinsing agents are required to dissolve organic tissue residues, kill bacteria and remove residues of the tooth substance from the canal wall. After rinsing the root canals are dried with different paper tips.
D. Close the drainage system tightly
If there was pain or a swelling already before the treatment, after cleansing and disinfecting, an antimicrobial drug is first introduced into the root canal system in most cases. The tooth is closed with a provisional, easily removable material.
The root canal system must be tightly closed to prevent microorganisms from reaching the oral cavity through the tooth into the jaw bone. The material of the root canal filling must above all be biologically compatible; it should not trigger any defensive reactions of the tissue around the tooth or the jawbone. Also, it must seal well and must not be allowed to dissolve in the tissue fluid. If pain or a swelling continue after the treatment, the root canal filling must also be removed. Finally, it is necessary that the filling is also visible in the X-ray image and can be controlled.